How Is Alternate Depth Calculated?

How do you calculate normal depth in open channel flow?

Normal depth is the depth of flow in a channel or culvert when the slope of the water surface and channel bottom is the same and the water depth remains constant.

Normal depth occurs when gravitational force of the water is equal to the friction drag along the culvert and there is no acceleration of flow..

How do you find depth?

Measure the depth, or height, of the object. In this example the depth will be 10 inches. Insert the measurements into the formula. Multiply the length (L) times the width (W) times the height (H).

How do you find critical depth?

The critical depth for a rectangular channel can be calculated from the fact that the Froude number is equal to one at critical flow conditions. For a rectangular channel , this fact leads to the equation: Vc/(gyc)1/2 = 1, where the subscript c is used to indicate critical flow conditions for the velocity and depth.

What is hydraulic mean depth?

For use in Froude number and energy relationships in open channel flow hydraulics, mean depth, hm, is defined as the depth which, when multiplied by the top water surface width, T, is equal to the irregular section area, A, shown on figures 2-4a and 2-4b, of the flow section and is commonly used for critical flow …

What is alternate depth?

Alternate depths are defined as the depths of flow in open channels for which the specific energy is the same. … The derived equation would be helpful in practical studies dealing with the open-channel flows, especially in the cases of transitions in width and bottom elevation of the channel.

What are y1 and y2 in the adjoining graph?

What are y1 and y2 in the adjoining graph? Explanation: For a particular specific energy above the minimum specific energy there are two depths called as alternate depths.

Why do hydraulic jumps occur?

Hydraulic jump is the jump or standing wave formed when the depth of flow of water changes from supercritical to subcritical state. When the slope of open channel decreases from steep to mild, the depth of flow of water increases toward the critical depth and a flow instability occurs at some point.

What is a critical depth?

Critical depth is defined as the depth of flow where energy is at a minimum for a particular discharge.

What is critical depth meter?

Critical depth meter is used to measure; 1) Discharge in an open channel. 2) Hydraulic jump.

What is it called when the hydraulic jump is in a moving form?

Explanation: When the hydraulic jump is dynamic or in a moving form it is called as positive surge.

How is the critical depth affected by Q?

How critical depth is affected by the Q? As shown in the results, when the flow rate (Q) is lower, the critical depth is shallower. When the flow rate (Q) is higher, the critical depth is deeper.

What is the normal depth denoted as?

6. What is the normal depth denoted as? Explanation: Normal depth is denoted as Yn. The normal depth plays an important role in determining the hydraulic slope and hydraulic curve of a fluid flow in motion.

What is alternate depth in open channel flow?

The depths of flow can be either PR = y1 or PR` = y`1. These two possible depths having the same specific energy are known as alternate depths. In Fig. (5.1), a line (OS) drawn such that E = y (i.e. at 450 to the abscissa) is the asymptote of the upper limb of the specific energy curve.

What is Sequent depth in hydraulic jump?

Conjugate, or sequent, depths are the paired depths that result upstream and downstream of a hydraulic jump, with the upstream flow being supercritical and downstream flow being subcritical.